While there are many gases that lead to the greenhouse effect carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major contributor and the main source of that is from the use of fossil fuels to power our economies. Fossil fuels in the form of coal, petroleum and natural gas are the major sources of energy that powers the world’s industries, transportation and electricity supplies. The extent to which our current infrastructure relies on these forms of energy is daunting and constructing a transition to a carbon neutral future as required by the UNFCCC will require a solution to the current high fossil fuel emissions which currently annually produce approximately 30 billion tonnes of CO2 across the globe.
The solution to this problem is to convert the fossil fuel industries to low emissions through Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) . CCS is so critical to the challenge that unless this technology is developed and deployed to fossil fuel powered industries there will be no place for fossil fuels in a carbon constrained world.
CCS can, however, form a valuable part in a balanced energy portfolio for the world and this has been recognised by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Energy Agency (IEA).
CCS involves capturing and separating CO2 from other gases in emissions and then compressing and injecting it into suitable deep geological formations where it will be sustainably and safely stored for very long periods of time.
The CO2 is stored in a liquid-like form at depths of greater than 1 kilometer in water-laden rocks. These rocks are similar in structure to those where fossil fuels are found and which have been known to have held such fluids for millions of years. The mechanisms are fully explained in many credible sources such as the CO2CRC website, the GCCSI and others.
The capture process which will inevitably be closely connected to the energy using facilities, be that a power plant or industrial emitter, such as a cement or steel works, is the currently the most expensive part of the CCS process on a $/t CO2 basis.
UNO Technology and our intellectual property is focused on significantly reducing capture costs by developing new environmentally sustainable solvent processes that will produce game changing performance in the massive and emerging CO2 capture market.